Bacterial meningitis requires early diagnosis and empirical antimicrobial treatment. Acute bacterial meningitis abm continues to be associated with high mortality and morbidity, despite advances in antimicrobial therapy. Infants may present with nonspecific symptoms and signs eg, lethargy, irritability, poor feeding, fever or hypothermia. Pdf bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, including the pia, arachnoid, and subarachnoid space, that occurs in response to. Acute bacterial meningitis in infants and children the. There is a vaccine that stops infants and young children from getting this kind of meningitis. Bacterial meningitis in malawian infants meningitis can occur in infants, children and adults. Implicit in our study is the assumption that risk of bacteremia or bacterial meningitis decreases around 30 days of age, and our data support such an assessment.
E coli and gbs remain the most common causes of bacterial meningitis in the first 90 days of life. It can be treated with appropriate antibiotics that also prevents spread. The bacteria are found in the mouth, throat, or nose. Bacterial meningitis is very serious because its onset is rapid and the infection is associated with a significant risk of death. Group b streptococcus gbs is the most common cause of neonatal meningitis.
Neonates are at high risk of meningitis and of resulting neurologic complications. The most common causes have been streptococcus pneumoniae, neisseria meningitidis, haemophilus influenzae type b hib, group b streptococcus gbs, and listeria monocytogenes table 1. Bacterial meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates and children throughout the world. In newborns and young babies, possible bacteria include. Treatment for bacterial meningitis usually involves intravenous iv antibiotics. The causative organism varies with age, immune function, immunization status, and geographic region, and empiric therapy for. Asymptomatic bacteriuria asb is a common finding in many populations, including healthy women and persons with underlying urologic abnormalities. The epidemiology, management, and outcomes of bacterial. The 2005 guideline from the infectious diseases society of america recommended that asb should be screened. Certain people who have direct contact with the saliva of a person with meningitis from hib may need to take preventive medicine.
Some bacteria and viruses are more common in certain age groups than others. The earlier the treatment is initiated, the better your childs outcome. The absolute risk difference of 4 per translates to an extra 250 lumbar punctures per case of meningitis in older infants. For empirical therapy of suspected bacterial meningitis, one should consider a thirdgeneration cephalosporin plus ampicillin for at least the first month. The illness course varies, with progression over hours to several days.
Neonatal bacterial meningitis is uncommon but associated with high mortality and morbidity. It is essential for clinicians to recognize the clinical signs and symptoms of meningitis and understand its management and prevention. The inflammation is caused by a bacterial infection and can be lifethreatening. Acute bacterial meningitis has a relatively rapid onset of symptoms, and routine laboratory. Still, meningitis remains one of the most significant infections in children, and morbidity and mortality in the child who has bacterial meningitis has not changed in the last 15 years, despite the availability of newer antibiotics and preventive strategies. It is crucial for pediatricians to remain vigilant in their understanding of the. Meningitis is an inflammation of the tissue that covers the brain and spinal cord that can be caused by several different types of, as well as viruses and fungibacteria. The incidence of meningococcal meningitis is greatest in infants younger than 1 year old. Streptococcus pneumoniae are bacteria that can cause pneumococcal meningitis. The presence of a rash in a febrile child is often nonspecific and more likely to be caused by a viral illness than acute bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis in infants is a serious infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space.
Pdf acute bacterial meningitis abm continues to be associated with high mortality and morbidity, despite advances in antimicrobial therapy. Early recognition of neonates at risk of poor prognosis would be helpful in providing timely management. The introduction of the protein conjugate vaccines against haemophilus infl uenzae type b, streptococcus pneumoniae, and. What increases my childs risk for bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis in children what you need to know. Meningitis about bacterial meningitis infection cdc.
Bacterial meningitis, an infectious disease characterized by infection and. However, the symptoms and signs depend on the age of the child, the duration of illness, and the host response to infection. The clinical features of bacterial meningitis in infants and children can be subtle, variable, nonspecific, or even absent. Meningitis occurs when the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord become inflamed. Children under the age of 5 years old are the main group at risk and the young infants below 2 months old have the highest incidence 2, 3. Some in the uk hold that an unwell child with petechial rash is pathognomonic of menin gococcal disease and so a lumbar puncture would add very little in terms. In addition to antibiotics, dexamethasone a steroid may also be given to children over six weeks of age who have acute bacterial meningitis. This is normally caused by infection but can also have non. As a result, communityacquired bacterial meningitis has become a disease that currently affects more adults than infants, with its specific.
The etiology of acute meningitis and encephalitis syndromes in a. Acute bacterial meningitis in infants and children. Prevalence of bacteremia and bacterial meningitis in. Diagnosis, initial management, and prevention of meningitis. From january 2008 to june 2014, we enrolled 232 term neonates with bacterial meningitis admitted to 3 neonatology departments in shanghai, china. Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, including the pia, arachnoid, and subarachnoid space, that occurs in response to infection with bacteria andor bacterial products. A recent history of upper respiratory tract infection is common in children with bacterial meningitis. Clinical practice guideline summary clinical practice guidelines for the acute management of infants and children with bacterial meningitis. Search strategy we searched medlinedatabase for articles published within the past 15 years, with the keywords meningitis, bacterial meningitis, meningitis in children, bacterial meningitis in children, neuroinfection, cns infection, brain infection, and meningeal inflammation. Bacterial meningitis is a severe, lifethreatening infection of the central nervous system that requires immediate medical attention. In infants and children, meningitis usually develops after.
Bacterial meningitis in infants over 3 months of age. However, people of any age can develop bacterial meningitis. Pdf acute bacterial meningitis in infants and children. A prospective study of etiology of childhood acute bacterial. Neisseria meningitidis, which account for 90% of reported cases of acute bacterial meningitis in infants and children. Babies are at increased risk for bacterial meningitis compared to people in other age groups. Bacterial meningitis is a serious disease that can lead to paralysis, stroke, and even death. Clinical prognosis in neonatal bacterial meningitis.899 1351 807 887 279 636 57 370 45 762 994 1346 247 557 1310 1373 96 302 601 1498 716 1172 1526 1447 470 1507 82 983 941 780 338 1177 163 722 1412 48 787 786 271 903 1458 1299 909 534 176 81 273 1079